T

he esophagus is a tube that connects the throat to the stomach, running down the middle of your chest behind your heart, and carrying foods and liquids from your mouth to the digestive system. Most adult’s esophagi are about 25 centimeters long and are lined by mucosa (a moist membrane that protects tissues) and muscle fibers.

The main function of the esophagus is to guide foods and fluids to the stomach avoiding foreign material (food, liquids, stomach acid or foreign objects) to enter into your trachea and lungs. There are two sphincter muscles – upper and lower – in the esophagus that are tightly closed in order to prevent stomach juices from traveling up the esophagus and also to prevent unwanted secretions from traveling to stomach. These muscles open up when you are eating, drinking, breathing, belching, etc.

A weakened lower esophageal sphincter is usually responsible for chronic acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Match to Esophageal Cancer Clinical Trials

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  • Find trials in your area

What is Esophageal Cancer?

Esophageal cancer is a type of cancer that occurs healthy cells start to grow and divide uncontrollably creating growths (known as tumors) along the surface of the esophagus. Doctors diagnose esophageal cancer using a camera-guided scope (endoscopy) to explore the esophagus and look for any abnormalities such as nodules or areas of irritation. If the doctor found any signs of cancer during an endoscopy they may order a biopsy to collect a sample of the abnormal growth. These tissues are analyzed for any potential cancer cells.

There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

Squamous cell carcinomas develop from normal squamous cells that run along the surface of the esophagus. On the other hand, adenocarcinomas are formed from gland cells present in the lower third of the esophagus, and it is believed to be caused mainly by the continuous exposure to stomach acid.

What Are the Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer?

Early stage esophageal cancer usually doesn’t have any symptoms, however, as the cancer progresses it starts to cause the following problems and discomforts:

  • Trouble swallowing
  • Chest or back pain
  • Chronic heartburn or indigestion
  • A cough and/or hoarseness
  • Shortness of breath and/or fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss and loss of appetite

What Causes Esophageal Cancer?

The causes of esophageal cancer are still not fully understood. However, doctors believe that there are a few risk factors that appear to increase a person’s risk for developing this kind of cancer.

Tobacco and Alcohol Use

Tobacco and drinking alcohol seems to damage DNA cells in the lining of the esophagus, which may lead them to mutate and become cancerous.

Gender

Men are three to four times more likely than women to develop esophageal cancer.

Being Overweight or Obese

Obesity and having too much body fat seems to increase the likelihood of developing esophageal cancer. However, researchers are still trying to find out why that happens.

Barrett’s Esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus is a condition that develops from chronic GERD in which the normal lining of the esophagus changes as a result of the constant acid exposure. Though Barrett’s Esophagus is not a form of cancer, some individuals with this condition develop esophageal cancer later on.

Diet

A diet low fruits and vegetables and some vitamin deficiencies have been observed to increase an individual’s risk of developing this type of cancer.

Esophageal Cancer Clinical Trials

Unfortunately, because esophageal cancer is rarely diagnosed early it has one the lowest survival rates. For that reason, doctors and researchers are constantly looking for better screening and diagnostic methods as well as more effective treatments. In order to test new approaches, researchers design clinical trials that involve esophageal cancer patients.

The main goal of a clinical trial is to assess if a new drug or intervention is safe, effective, and altogether a better alternative than available options. Clinical trials are very carefully evaluated by internal and external agencies to ensure that the health and safety of volunteers are never compromised.

ClinicalTrials.gov: Recruiting Studies | esophageal cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days Studies found on ClinicalTrials.gov by a search of: Recruiting Studies | esophageal cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days

  • Effects of Oral Aloe Vera Juice on Chemotherapy and Radiation-induced Oral Mucositis and Esophagitis
    on May 11, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Conditions:   Oral Cavity Cancer;   Head and Neck Cancers - Tonsils;   Esophageal Cancer;   Laryngeal Cancer;   Oropharynx Cancer;   Mediastinal Cancer;   Chest Wall Tumor;   Radiation MucositisInterventions:   Dietary Supplement: 100% Aloe Vera Juice;   Combination Product: Magic Mouthwash;   Combination Product: Salt and Baking soda rinse;   Drug: CarafateSponsor:   Thompson Cancer Survival CenterRecruiting

  • Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Combined With Camrelizumab and Nimotuzumab for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    on May 2, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Toxicity, DrugIntervention:   Procedure: neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy combined with Camrelizumab and Nimotuzumab followed by surgerySponsor:   Anhui Provincial HospitalRecruiting

  • Hybrid Dose-fraction Radiotherapy for Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
    on April 27, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Esophageal Squamous Cell CarcinomaIntervention:   Drug: Hybrid dose-fraction Radiotherapy combined with immune checkpoint inhibitorsSponsor:   Anhui Provincial HospitalRecruiting

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitor Plus Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Antibody in Advanced Esophageal Cancer
    on April 27, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Esophageal NeoplasmsIntervention:   Drug: an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody plus an angiogenesis inhibitorSponsor:   The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityRecruiting

  • Surgery or Chemoradiotherapy for Cervical Esophageal Cancer
    on April 14, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Cervical Esophageal CancerIntervention:   Procedure: EsophagectomySponsor:   Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical SciencesRecruiting

  • Tislelizumab Combined With Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy for Resectable Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
    on April 12, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell CancerIntervention:   Drug: Tislelizumab Combined With Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy and ChemotherapySponsor:   Shandong Cancer Hospital and InstituteRecruiting

  • Conventional Oral Intake vs Delayed Oral Intake With Jejunostomy Feeding After Esophagectomy (JNS Study)
    on April 8, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Conditions:   Esophageal Cancer;   Surgery;   Jejunostomy; Complications;   Nutrition Related CancerIntervention:   Dietary Supplement: Jejunostomy feedingSponsor:   Seoul National University HospitalRecruiting

  • Study of NGM438 as Monotherapy and in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors
    on April 5, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Conditions:   Pancreatic Cancer;   Breast Cancer;   Gastric Cancer;   Non Small Cell Lung Cancer;   Cervical Cancer;   Endocervical Cancer;   Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck;   Bladder Urothelial Cancer;   Colorectal Cancer;   Esophageal Cancer;   Ovarian Cancer;   Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Prostate Cancer;   Melanoma;   Mesothelioma;   CholangiocarcinomaInterventions:   Drug: NGM438;   Drug: PembrolizumabSponsor:   NGM Biopharmaceuticals, IncRecruiting

  • Neoantigen Vaccine in Esophagus Cancer Patients Following Neoadjuvant Therapy and Surgical Resection
    on April 1, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Resectable Esophageal CancerInterventions:   Biological: iNeo-Vac-P01;   Biological: GM-CSFSponsors:   Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University;   Hangzhou Neoantigen Therapeutics Co., Ltd.Recruiting

  • Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab Plus Chemotherapy for Resectable Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    on March 31, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Condition:   Esophageal Squamous Cell CarcinomaInterventions:   Drug: Pembrolizumab;   Drug: Carboplatin or Cisplatin;   Drug: DocetaxelSponsor:   Peking Union Medical College HospitalRecruiting

  • VITAMin Insufficiency in Esophagogastric Neoplasms
    on March 16, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Conditions:   Esophageal Cancer;   Gastric Cancer;   Vitamin Disease;   Quality of LifeIntervention:   Dietary Supplement: GIKAVISponsor:   Zuyderland Medisch CentrumRecruiting

  • Personalized Neoantigen Peptide-Based Vaccine in Combination With Pembrolizumab for the Treatment of Advanced Solid Tumors, The PNeoVCA Study
    on March 8, 2022 at 5:00 pm

    Conditions:   Anatomic Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Anatomic Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Anatomic Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Anatomic Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Anatomic Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage III Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVA Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVA Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVB Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Clinical Stage IVB Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Locally Advanced Cervical Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Endometrial Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma;   Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma;   Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Lung Non-Small Cell Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm;   Locally Advanced Melanoma;   Locally Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Unresectable Breast Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Unresectable Cervical Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Unresectable Gastric Adenocarcinoma;   Locally Advanced Unresectable Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma;   Locally Advanced Unresectable Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Locally Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma;   Metastatic Cervical Carcinoma;   Metastatic Endometrial Carcinoma;   Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma;   Metastatic Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma;   Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma;   Metastatic Lung Non-Small Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Malignant Solid Neoplasm;   Metastatic Melanoma;   Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma;   Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma;   Pathologic Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage III Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIA Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIB Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IIID Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IV Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IV Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IVA Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Pathologic Stage IVB Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage III Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage IIIA Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage IIIB Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage IV Gastric Cancer AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage IV Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage IVA Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Postneoadjuvant Therapy Stage IVB Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8;   Prognostic Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Prognostic Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Prognostic Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Prognostic Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Prognostic Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v8;   Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Stage III Cervical Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage III Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck AJCC v8;   Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Stage III Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage III Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Stage IIIA Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Stage IIIB Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIC Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IV Cervical Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IV Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck AJCC v8;   Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Stage IV Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Stage IVA Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v8;   Stage IVB Lung Cancer AJCC v8;   Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v8;   Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma;   Unresectable Cervical Carcinoma;   Unresectable Endometrial Carcinoma;   Unresectable Gastric Adenocarcinoma;   Unresectable Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma;   Unresectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma;   Unresectable Lung Non-Small Cell Carcinoma;   Unresectable Malignant Solid Neoplasm;   Unresectable Melanoma;   Unresectable Merkel Cell Carcinoma;   Unresectable Renal Cell Carcinoma;   Unresectable Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Unresectable Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma;   Unresectable Urothelial CarcinomaInterventions:   Drug: Cyclophosphamide;   Biological: Neoantigen Peptide Vaccine;   Biological: Pembrolizumab;   Biological: SargramostimSponsors:   Mayo Clinic;   National Cancer Institute (NCI)Recruiting

To participate in a clinical trial, participants are asked to sign an informed consent document. This document outlines all the potential benefits and risks that may arise from the trial, as well as an explanation of the experimental treatment, and what will be expected from the volunteer (i.e., number of visits to the clinic or hospital, any in-patient stays, etc.) Most clinical trials also have inclusion and exclusion criteria that outline who can and cannot participate in the study and why.

If you are interested in participating in an esophageal cancer clinical trial your doctor will be able to tell you if you are a good candidate for one and may help you find a trial in your local area. Clinical trials are conducted by research centers, hospitals, and universities all across the country and many of them are always recruiting new volunteers.

Match to Esophageal Cancer Clinical Trials

  • Access to cutting-edge treatments
  • Latest clinical trials
  • Find trials in your area
Sources