The exact cause of asthma hasn’t been discovered, but it is known to be the result of different environmental and genetic factors. Some of these factors include:
What is Asthma?
sthma is one the most common chronic lung conditions. It affects the bronchioles, which are the smallest airways in the lungs, causing them to narrow even more. This narrowing is reversible and temporary, and it causes the typical symptoms of asthma, such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
Asthma is more common during childhood, but it can start at any age and in some cases, it continues through to adulthood. It can also run in some families.
What Causes Asthma?
During an asthma attack, certain triggers cause excessive inflammation in the bronchioles, which in turn causes the airways to narrow and to produce more secretions or mucus. The combination of narrowed bronchioles and secretions block the airway, which makes it harder to breathe properly.
How is Asthma Diagnosed?
First, the doctor must examine the patient and their medical history. Certain symptoms, such as shortness of breath (dyspnea), coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness, will point to an asthma diagnosis. After this, a procedure called spirometry will be carried out to confirm the diagnosis.
During a spirometry, the patient will be asked to blow air into a device called spirometer, and said device will deliver certain results which will allow the doctor to classify the patient’s symptoms according to severity. A spirometry measures:
A peak flow meter can also be used to measure your breathing capacity. It is a small device and it is recommended that every asthma patient own one, so that they can measure their peak expiratory flow rate or PEFR, which will allow them to know the degree of obstruction in their airways at any given point in time.
Using data such as the frequency of symptoms, how often they occur during the night, FEV1 and its variability, and how often medications need to be used, asthma is classified as intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent. It can also be classified as extrinsic or intrinsic depending on whether the symptoms are triggered by allergens or not, respectively.
There isn’t a permanent cure for asthma, however, different medications can be used to improve the symptoms it causes. Patients usually receive certain types of drugs to treat acute episodes, and different ones to decrease or prevent attacks in the long term. Some of these medications include:
Fast Acting Drugs:
- Short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABA): these drugs represent the first choice of treatment for acute asthma symptoms, and they include salbutamol, bitolterol, fenoterol,levosalbutamol, and orciprenaline.
- Anticholinergics: can be used in conjunction with SABA to strengthen their effects, or alone in people allergic to them. The most used anticholinergic is ipratropium bromide.
- During severe attacks, inhaled epinephrine is sometimes used.
- Corticosteroids are commonly used to control asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids are preferred, such as beclomethasone, budesonide, and fluticasone.
- Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA) can be used together with corticosteroids, and they are not used alone frequently. They include formoterol and salmeterol.
- Leukotriene receptor antagonists can be added to the long-term treatment of mild or moderate asthma. They include montelukast and zafirlukast.
Monoclonal Antibody Therapy:
Medications such as omalizumab, mepolizumab, and reslizumab have been approved for use in teenagers and adults with severe asthma, and they have been found to reduce the use of corticosteroids by up to 50%.
This procedure involves the delivery of thermal energy to the airway wall during a series of bronchoscopy procedures. Symptoms might be exacerbated during the first months after therapy, but they seem to decrease afterwards.
Asthma Clinical Trials
Considering the fact that asthma affects a large number of people, it is only natural for doctors and scientists to want to discover new ways to treat this condition and improve the quality of life of those who suffer from it.
Asthma clinical trials aim to understand the causes of asthma, and to test out new medications and even lifestyle and dietary changes to treat the disease.
Joining a clinical trial provides patients a greater control over their health, and gives them access to healthcare provided by teams of experts in their fields. Trials are carried out in universities, hospitals, and research centers. If you are interested in joining a clinical trial to find new ways to manage your asthma, ask your doctor about clinical trials in your area or contact organizations to find out about trials available to you.
A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of MTPS9579A in Patients With Asthma Requiring Inhaled Corticosteroids and a Second Controller
on September 17, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: AsthmaInterventions: Drug: MTPS9579A; Drug: PlaceboSponsor: Genentech, Inc.Not yet recruiting […]
STRONGer Together: A Small Group Intervention for Children With Asthma and Anxiety/Depression
on September 13, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Childhood Asthma; Childhood Anxiety; Childhood DepressionIntervention: Behavioral: STRONGer TogetherSponsors: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; National Institutes of Health (NIH)Not yet recruiting […]
Remote Physician Care for Home Hospital Patients
on September 6, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Infection; Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Asthma; Gout Flare; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hypertensive Urgency; Atrial Fibrillation Rapid; Anticoagulants; IncreasedIntervention: Other: Remote VisitSponsor: […]
Dexpramipexole Dose-Ranging Biomarker Study in Subjects With Eosinophilic Asthma
on August 6, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Eosinophilic Asthma; AsthmaInterventions: Drug: low-dose dexpramipexole; Drug: mid-dose dexpramipexole; Drug: high-dose dexpramipexole; Drug: placebo oral tabletSponsor: Knopp BiosciencesRecruiting […]
Medication Adherence With Telehealthcare Medication Therapy Management
on June 7, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Uncontrolled Asthma; Young AdultsInterventions: Behavioral: Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Video Telehealthcare; Behavioral: Electronic Adherence Self-Management (EAM)Sponsors: Johns Hopkins University; Nemours Children's Health System; American Lung Association; […]
Tezepelumab Home Use Study
on May 30, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: AsthmaInterventions: Biological: Tezepelumab (APFS); Biological: Tezepelumab (AI)Sponsors: AstraZeneca; AmgenRecruiting […]
Impact of Tiotropium Add-on Therapy in Patients With Asthma
on May 27, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: AsthmaInterventions: Drug: Tiotropium Respimat®; Drug: Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-acting beta-agonistSponsor: Boehringer IngelheimActive, not recruiting […]
New Approaches for Empowering Studies of Asthma in Populations of African Descent
on May 6, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: AsthmaIntervention: Sponsor: National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)Recruiting […]
- Recognize what triggers your symptoms, so that you can avoid the situations or substances which can lead to an attack, or take the necessary precautions, such as premedicating, to manage or prevent your symptoms.
- Avoid smoke inhalation and exposure to substances or chemicals with strong smells.
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle and lose excess weight. Certain food preservatives can trigger symptoms, so it is helpful to consume fresh, healthy foods.
- Practice exercise within your limits. Physical activity helps keep asthma symptoms at bay, since it improves your aerobic capacity.
- Keep your asthma medication with you and be prepared for acute attacks.
- Don’t discourage your loved one from enjoying physical activities and sports.
- Don’t smoke or use strong-smelling substances around your loved one.
- Help maintain a clean environment which is allergen-free.
- Get flu shots to ensure herd immunity and avoid infectious diseases which could trigger acute episodes.
- Know when to seek emergency care for your loved one.
- UPMC. Recovered from http://www.upmc.com/patients-visitors/education/breathing/pages/asthma.aspx\
- Tidy, C. Asthma. (Nov 8th, 2016). Recovered from https://patient.info/health/asthma-leaflet#nav-2