Contrary to other types of cancers where researchers are not entirely sure of why they form, there is a pretty good understanding of the risk factors associated with lung cancer and how to prevent it in most people.
What is Lung Cancer?
ung cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in the United States, affecting more than 200,000 persons every year and accounting for almost 30 percent of all cancer deaths each year. Lung cancer refers to the abnormal proliferation of otherwise healthy cells in one or both lungs, creating growths or tumors that can severely reduce a person’s ability to breathe.
Lung cancers are typically divided into two groups: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
SCLC is the most aggressive type of lung cancer; it grows and spreads very rapidly and they tend to be discovered at very advanced stages. SCLC comprises 10 to 15 percent of all lung cancers.
On the other hand, NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, found in about 80 to 85 percent of all lung cancer patients. This type of cancer also has several subtypes depending on the type of lung cell it originated from, and it is the most common lung cancer among non-smokers.
Who is at Risk of Developing Lung Cancer?
The most common and well-known cause of lung cancer, smoking tobacco is responsible for about 80 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is believed that smoking causes lung cancer – and contributes to many other types of cancer – by damaging healthy cells on the lining of the lungs. As the tissues become increasingly damaged your body tries to repair them, but with repeated exposure to smoke cells that were once healthy begin to behave erratically.
Unfortunately, non-smokers are also at risk of developing lung cancer if they are continuously exposed to tobacco smoke. In fact, secondhand smoke, or inhaling the smoke of others accounts for more than 7,000 lung cancer deaths every year.
Up until the early 1980s, these minerals were common in American homes in the form of wall linings, roof insulators, paint coatings, etc. However, beginning in the 1930s research studies began circulating about the dangers of asbestos exposure and the increased risk for lung cancer, mesothelioma, and other respiratory conditions. Though asbestos is not used nearly as much today as it was once used, it is still responsible for about four percent of all lung cancer deaths.
Exposure to radon is the second most common cause of lung cancer for both smokers and non-smokers, and the number one cause of cancer among non-smokers. Radon is a radioactive gas that is tasteless, odorless, and colorless, which makes it hard for people to know when they are being exposed to it.
How is Lung Cancer Diagnosed?
Lung cancer is typically diagnosed through an X-ray or other types of imaging tests. Chest X-rays are typically performed when a person goes to the doctor with some form of respiratory complaint, including a persistent cough, shortness of breath, chest or back pain, hoarseness, etc.
A chest X-ray may reveal abnormalities or growths that signal the presence of lung cancer, however, CT scans can pick up smaller lesions that might not be visible on an X-ray. Other ways to diagnose lung cancer include a sputum cytology, which is an analysis of the cells in your sputum (phlegm) to see if there are any cancer cells present, or a biopsy to evaluate abnormal cells from a tumor.
How is Lung Cancer Treated?
Lung cancer treatment depends on many factors, including the stage of the disease, the medical history of the patient, and the type of lung cancer. The following treatments – of a combination of a few of them – are some of the most common procedures to treat lung cancer:
Lung Cancer Clinical Trials
Some types of lung cancer can be very aggressive and unresponsive to treatment, which is one of the reasons why researchers conduct clinical trials to test new treatment options. A clinical trial is a voluntary research study designed to test a new medication, procedure, screening test, etc. to assess its safety and effectiveness before it is released to the general public.
Though the medications or interventions in a clinical trial are still at the experimental phase, some individuals decide to enroll in these types of studies because it gives them access to new treatments and specialized medical care before it is available to all patients.
If you or a family member is interested in becoming a lung cancer clinical trial volunteer, contact your doctor or local hospital/university to inquire about any local studies actively recruiting participants.
A Study of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Untreated Patients With Stage 3 NSCLC That is Unable or Not Planned to be Removed by Surgery
on July 19, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)Interventions: Drug: Nivolumab; Drug: Ipilimumab; Drug: DurvalumabSponsor: Bristol-Myers SquibbNot yet recruiting […]
A Study of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Nivolumab Versus Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Placebo, Followed by Surgical Removal and Adjuvant Treatment With Nivolumab or Placebo for Participants With...
on July 19, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell LungInterventions: Biological: Nivolumab; Drug: Carboplatin; Drug: Cisplatin; Drug: Paclitaxel; Drug: Pemetrexed; Drug: PlaceboSponsor: Bristol-Myers SquibbNot yet recruiting […]
Biodistribution&Pharmacokinetic of Position Emission Tomography(PET) Radiopharmaceutical 18F C SNAT4
on July 12, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Cancer; Lung CancerInterventions: Drug: 18F-C-SNAT4; Procedure: Positron emission tomography (PET)/Computed tomography (CT) ScanSponsor: Stanford UniversityNot yet recruiting […]
Ipilimumab and Nivolumab in Combination With Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
on July 9, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: ALK Gene Rearrangement; EGFR Gene Mutation; Locally Advanced Lung Non-Small Cell Carcinoma; Lung Non-Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Lung Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IIA Lung Cancer AJCC v8; […]
Targeted Therapy With CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Chemo-Refractory, Rb Wild-Type Extensive SCLC
on July 8, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Small-cell Lung CancerIntervention: Drug: Abemaciclib,Sponsor: Case Comprehensive Cancer CenterNot yet recruiting […]
Sonidegib and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors
on July 3, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Clinical Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v8; Clinical Stage III Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma AJCC v8; Clinical Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8; […]
First-in-Human Study of JNJ-74699157 in Participants With Tumors Harboring the KRAS G12C Mutation
on July 3, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Neoplasms; Advanced Solid Tumors; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal CancerIntervention: Drug: JNJ-74699157Sponsor: Janssen Research & Development, LLCNot yet recruiting […]
Dose-Escalation and Dose-Expansion of RMC-4630 and Cobimetinib in Relapsed/Refractory Solid Tumors
on June 18, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Solid TumorInterventions: Drug: RMC-4630; Drug: CobimetinibSponsors: Revolution Medicines, Inc.; SanofiRecruiting […]
- Lung Cancer. Mayo Clinic (Nov. 16, 2018) Recovered from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lung-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20374620