Contrary to other types of cancers where researchers are not entirely sure of why they form, there is a pretty good understanding of the risk factors associated with lung cancer and how to prevent it in most people.
What is Lung Cancer?
ung cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in the United States, affecting more than 200,000 persons every year and accounting for almost 30 percent of all cancer deaths each year. Lung cancer refers to the abnormal proliferation of otherwise healthy cells in one or both lungs, creating growths or tumors that can severely reduce a person’s ability to breathe.
Lung cancers are typically divided into two groups: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
SCLC is the most aggressive type of lung cancer; it grows and spreads very rapidly and they tend to be discovered at very advanced stages. SCLC comprises 10 to 15 percent of all lung cancers.
On the other hand, NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, found in about 80 to 85 percent of all lung cancer patients. This type of cancer also has several subtypes depending on the type of lung cell it originated from, and it is the most common lung cancer among non-smokers.
Who is at Risk of Developing Lung Cancer?
The most common and well-known cause of lung cancer, smoking tobacco is responsible for about 80 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is believed that smoking causes lung cancer – and contributes to many other types of cancer – by damaging healthy cells on the lining of the lungs. As the tissues become increasingly damaged your body tries to repair them, but with repeated exposure to smoke cells that were once healthy begin to behave erratically.
Unfortunately, non-smokers are also at risk of developing lung cancer if they are continuously exposed to tobacco smoke. In fact, secondhand smoke, or inhaling the smoke of others accounts for more than 7,000 lung cancer deaths every year.
Up until the early 1980s, these minerals were common in American homes in the form of wall linings, roof insulators, paint coatings, etc. However, beginning in the 1930s research studies began circulating about the dangers of asbestos exposure and the increased risk for lung cancer, mesothelioma, and other respiratory conditions. Though asbestos is not used nearly as much today as it was once used, it is still responsible for about four percent of all lung cancer deaths.
Exposure to radon is the second most common cause of lung cancer for both smokers and non-smokers, and the number one cause of cancer among non-smokers. Radon is a radioactive gas that is tasteless, odorless, and colorless, which makes it hard for people to know when they are being exposed to it.
How is Lung Cancer Diagnosed?
Lung cancer is typically diagnosed through an X-ray or other types of imaging tests. Chest X-rays are typically performed when a person goes to the doctor with some form of respiratory complaint, including a persistent cough, shortness of breath, chest or back pain, hoarseness, etc.
A chest X-ray may reveal abnormalities or growths that signal the presence of lung cancer, however, CT scans can pick up smaller lesions that might not be visible on an X-ray. Other ways to diagnose lung cancer include a sputum cytology, which is an analysis of the cells in your sputum (phlegm) to see if there are any cancer cells present, or a biopsy to evaluate abnormal cells from a tumor.
How is Lung Cancer Treated?
Lung cancer treatment depends on many factors, including the stage of the disease, the medical history of the patient, and the type of lung cancer. The following treatments – of a combination of a few of them – are some of the most common procedures to treat lung cancer:
Lung Cancer Clinical Trials
Some types of lung cancer can be very aggressive and unresponsive to treatment, which is one of the reasons why researchers conduct clinical trials to test new treatment options. A clinical trial is a voluntary research study designed to test a new medication, procedure, screening test, etc. to assess its safety and effectiveness before it is released to the general public.
Though the medications or interventions in a clinical trial are still at the experimental phase, some individuals decide to enroll in these types of studies because it gives them access to new treatments and specialized medical care before it is available to all patients.
If you or a family member is interested in becoming a lung cancer clinical trial volunteer, contact your doctor or local hospital/university to inquire about any local studies actively recruiting participants.
ClinicalTrials.gov: Recruiting Studies | Lung Cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days Studies found on ClinicalTrials.gov by a search of: Recruiting Studies | Lung Cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days
Phase I Study of Individualized Neoantigen Peptides in the Treatment of EGFR Mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
on May 21, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Non Small Cell Lung CancerIntervention: Drug: Individualized neoantigen peptides vaccineSponsors: Sun Yat-sen University; Tianjin Hengjia Biotechnology Development co., LTDRecruiting
First-in-Human Study of XMT-1592 in Patients With Ovarian Cancer and NSCLC Likely to Express NaPi2b
on May 20, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Ovarian Cancer; Nonsmall Cell Lung CancerIntervention: Biological: XMT-1592Sponsors: Mersana Therapeutics; IQVIA BiotechRecruiting
Developing Lung Cancer Screening in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: a Qualitative Study
on May 20, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Hodgkin LymphomaIntervention: Sponsor: The Christie NHS Foundation TrustRecruiting
A Study With Pembrolizumab for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
on May 19, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Non-small-lung-cell Cancer, NSCLC; PembrolizumabInterventions: Drug: A) Standard maintenance programme group, pembrolizumab 200mg, every 3 weeks, for a total of 2 years of follow-up and follow-up for 1 year;; Drug: B) Improvement maintenance programme group, pembrolizumab 200mg, every 6 weeks, for a total of 2 years of follow-up and 1 year follow-up;Sponsors: Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University; Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Guangzhou Medical University; Southern Medical University, China; Beijing Sino-Japan Friendship Hospital; First Hospital of China Medical University; Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University; Jiangsu People's Hospital; Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University; Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Huazhong University of science and technology; Xijing Hospital Affiliated to the Fourth Military Medical University; Xiangya Hospital Affiliated to Central South University; West China Hospital Affiliated to West China Medical University; The Second Affiliated Hospital of the Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University) - Xinqiao Hospital; Zunyi Medical University Affiliated Hospital; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical UniversityRecruiting
Radiation Therapy to Relieve Symptoms in Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
on May 12, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Non-Small Cell Lung CancerInterventions: Radiation: Cyclical Hypofractionated Palliative Radiation (Quad Shot); Behavioral: EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaireSponsor: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterRecruiting
Irinotecan Hydrochloride Liposome Injection (LY01610) For Small Cell Lung Cancer
on May 11, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Small Cell Lung CancerIntervention: Drug: LY01610( Irinotecan hydrochloride liposome injection )Sponsor: Luye Pharma Group Ltd.Recruiting
Mobile Devices to Detect Early Pneumonitis in Stage III NSCLC Patients on Durvalumab.
on May 8, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Unresectable Stage III NSCLCIntervention: Device: Multiparametric Mobile TechnologySponsor: AstraZenecaRecruiting
Optimal EGFR TKIs Treatment Strategies for Lung Adenocarcinoma Harboring EGFR Exon 19 Deletion Variants
on May 1, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: EGFR Exon 19 Mutation; Tumor ProgressionIntervention: Sponsor: National Taiwan University HospitalRecruiting
Iraqi Trial for Lung Cancer Screening
on April 29, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Lung CancerIntervention: Diagnostic Test: low dose CTSponsor: Oncology Teaching Hospital, BaghdadRecruiting
Radiomic Signature as Predictive Marker of Response to Chemoradiation and Durvalumab in Stage III NSCLC.
on April 28, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Lung Cancer; Lung Cancer Stage IIIIntervention: Drug: DurvalumabSponsor: IRCCS Policlinico S. MatteoRecruiting
Patient Forward Access to Clinical and Technological Research: Genetic Influences on Lung Cancer and Atopic Dermatitis
on April 27, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Eczema/Atopic Dermatitis; Lung CancerIntervention: Sponsors: Boston Children’s Hospital; PfizerRecruiting
COM902 (A TIGIT Inhibitor) in Subjects With Advanced Malignancies
on April 21, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Advanced Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Lung Cancer; Colon Cancer; Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Breast CancerIntervention: Drug: COM902Sponsor: Compugen LtdRecruiting
- Lung Cancer. Mayo Clinic (Nov. 16, 2018) Recovered from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lung-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20374620