Unlike other types of cancer, which are silent and asymptomatic, ovarian cancer may produce very serious signs and symptoms even at a very early stage. Some of the most common symptoms of ovarian cancer can be very similar to less serious conditions such as urinary tract infections or mild abdominal problems. These symptoms include:
What is Ovarian Cancer?
varian cancer occurs when some cells in your ovaries start to rapidly divide uncontrollably, creating growths or tumors around the ovaries and surrounding tissues. According to the American Cancer Association, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer among women, and it is estimated that more than 20,000 women will be diagnosed with this type of cancer every year.
Ovarian cancer affects the ovaries, which are a keypart of the female reproductive system. All females have two ovaries, each about the size of an almond, which lie on either side of the uterus and are responsible for creating and releasing eggs during the menstrual cycle, as well as producing the two mean female sex hormones: estrogen and progesterone.
How is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?
- Indigestion and changes in appetite
- Changes in bowel movements
- Urinary incontinence or increased urge to urinate
- Pain around the pelvis area
- Back pain
When ovarian cancer is found at its early stages, patients have nearly a 95% chance of living more than five years after their diagnosis. However, only 20% of ovarian cancer cases are found early.
Currently, there are no tests to specifically diagnose ovarian cancer. This type of cancer is usually found during routine checkups when a professional perform a pelvic exam to evaluate the shape, size and any abnormalities in around the uterus and ovaries.
Unfortunately, it is very hard to feel or see any to see or feel any tumors early, which is why most women are diagnosed later. In addition to a pelvic exam, doctors might order a transvaginal ultrasound or a CA-125 blood test.
What Causes Ovarian Cancer?
Scientists still aren’t exactly sure about what causes ovarian cancer. As with many other types of cancer, there are a number of risk factors that can increase the likelihood of a woman to develop this kind of cancer, however, have one or even a few of these risk factors doesn’t mean that a person is destined to develop the disease.
These are some risk factors that have been observed in women with ovarian cancer:
Older women seem to be more likely than younger women to develop ovarian cancer. In fact, most women with ovarian cancer have been diagnosed after menopause, and half of all ovarian cancers are diagnosed in women 60 and older.
Researchers have observed that women who continue taking hormones after menopause has ended have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. Additionally, women who have taken estrogen without progesterone for more than five years also have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
Women with a family history of ovarian cancer (mother, sisters, grandmothers, aunts, etc.) have a higher risk of developing it than those who do not have any family history of ovarian cancer.
Having a high body mass index (BMI) has been linked to several types of cancer, including ovarian cancer. However, researchers are still trying to figure out the relationship between cancer cells and obesity.
Women who have had at least one successful pregnancy before the age of 30 seem to have a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer, which also appears to decline with the number of children the woman has. On the other hand, women who never had children or had their first child later in life have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
How is Ovarian Cancer Treated?
The treatment course for ovarian cancer depends on the stage the cancer is in. Cancer is categorized in stages in order to describe its size and severity. The stages are as follows:
Depending on which stage the ovarian cancer is found, the doctor and the patient may decide in one – or several treatments to attack cancer cells. Some common ovarian cancer treatments include:
- Hormone therapy
- Clinical trials
Ovarian Cancer Clinical Trials
Clinical trials have contributed a lot to the current survival rates of ovarian cancer. However, researchers are still trying to find better screening methods that will allow doctors to find and diagnose ovarian cancer earlier, thus improving the patient’s life expectancy. Scientists are continuously researching new, less invasive treatment options that might potentially cure ovarian cancer.
If you are interested in participating in a clinical trial, ask your doctor or contact your local hospital and/or university to find out which trials are recruiting volunteers near you.
ClinicalTrials.gov: Recruiting Studies | Ovarian Cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days Studies found on ClinicalTrials.gov by a search of: Recruiting Studies | Ovarian Cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days
Study of SO-C101 and SO-C101in Combination With Pembro in Adult Patients With Advanced/Metastatic Solid Tumors
on January 21, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Thyroid; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Small-cell Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Melanoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Microsatellite Instability High; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Mesothelioma; Thymic Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Biliary Tract Cancer; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Ovarian Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal CancerInterventions: Drug: SO-C101; Drug: pembrolizumabSponsor: Sotio a.s.Recruiting
The Application of Real-Time Near-infrared Imaging in Gynecological Surgery
on January 13, 2020 at 5:00 pm
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Heated Intra-peritoneal Chemotherapy With Doxorubicin and Cisplatin for the Treatment of Resectable, Refractory, or Recurrent Abdominal or Pelvic Tumors in Pediatric Patients, T.O.A.S.T. I.T. Study
on December 30, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Malignant Abdominal Neoplasm; Malignant Pelvic Neoplasm; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Carcinoma; Recurrent Liposarcoma; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Sarcoma; Refractory Colon Carcinoma; Refractory Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Refractory Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Refractory Gastric Carcinoma; Refractory Liposarcoma; Refractory Malignant Mesothelioma; Refractory Ovarian Carcinoma; Refractory Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Refractory Rectal Carcinoma; Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Sarcoma; Resectable Liposarcoma; Resectable Malignant Mesothelioma; Resectable SarcomaInterventions: Drug: Cisplatin; Procedure: Cytoreductive Surgery; Drug: Doxorubicin; Drug: Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy; Drug: Sodium ThiosulfateSponsors: Mayo Clinic; National Cancer Institute (NCI)Recruiting
A Study of Mirvetuximab Soravtansine vs. Investigator's Choice of Chemotherapy in Advanced High-Grade Epithelial Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancers With High Folate Receptor-Alpha Expression
on December 24, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Peritoneal Cancer; Fallopian Tube CancerInterventions: Drug: Mirvetuximab Soravtansine; Drug: Paclitaxel; Drug: Topotecan; Drug: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicinSponsors: ImmunoGen, Inc.; Gynecologic Oncology GroupRecruiting
Prehabilitation Care for Women With Advanced Ovarian Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
on December 19, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube CancerIntervention: Other: PrehabilitationSponsor: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterRecruiting
Genetic Mutation in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
on December 9, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Nucleotide Variant; Copy Number Variation; Insertion-deletion Variation; Genomic Structural Variation; Total Mutation Burden; Microsatellite Instability; PD-1; PD-L1Intervention: Diagnostic Test: A multi-gene panel testingSponsor: Lei LiRecruiting
Homologous Recombination Deficiency Status in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
on December 9, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Chinese; Homologous Recombination Deficiency; BRCA1 Mutation; BRCA2 Mutation; PrognosisIntervention: Diagnostic Test: Genomic testingSponsor: Lei LiRecruiting
Study of NMS-03305293 in Pts With Selected Advanced/Metastatic Solid Tumors
on December 2, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Advanced/Metastatic Solid TumorsIntervention: Drug: NMS-03305293Sponsor: Nerviano Medical SciencesRecruiting
Study BT5528-100 in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Associated With EphA2 Expression
on November 27, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Urothelial CancerInterventions: Drug: BT5528; Drug: NivolumabSponsor: Bicycle Tx LimitedRecruiting
Bevacizumab and Tocotrienol in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
on November 25, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian Cancer RecurrentInterventions: Drug: Bevacizumab; Dietary Supplement: TocotrienolSponsor: Vejle HospitalRecruiting
A Study to Evaluate Rucaparib in Patients With Solid Tumors and With Deleterious Mutations in HRR Genes
on November 21, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Solid TumorIntervention: Drug: RucaparibSponsor: Clovis Oncology, Inc.Recruiting
Data and Specimen Bank of Patients Diagnosed With, and at High-risk for, Gynecologic Cancers
on November 20, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian CancerIntervention: Other: TamponsSponsor: University of VirginiaRecruiting
Ovarian Cancer Treatment With a Liposome Formulated mRNA Vaccine in Combination With (Neo-)Adjuvant Chemotherapy
on November 14, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian CancerIntervention: Drug: W_ova1 VaccineSponsors: University Medical Center Groningen; Biontech RNA Pharmaceuticals GmbHRecruiting
A Study of ZN-c3 in Participants With Solid Tumors
on November 8, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Solid Tumor; Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Peritoneal Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer; Malignant Melanoma; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Urothelial CarcinomaInterventions: Drug: ZN-c3; Drug: Talazoparib; Drug: PembrolizumabSponsors: K-Group Beta; IQVIA BiotechRecruiting
Appropriate Dosing to Optimise Personalised Cancer Treatments
on November 6, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Melanoma Stage III; Melanoma Stage IV; Ovarian Cancer; Renal Cancer Stage III; Renal Cancer Stage IV; Lung Cancer, Non-small CellInterventions: Diagnostic Test: Dried blood Spot (DBS); Diagnostic Test: Venous blood samplingSponsor: University of DundeeRecruiting
Real-life Data of Olaparib in Relapsed Ovarian Cancers Patients
on November 6, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Relapsed Ovarian Cancers PatientsIntervention: Drug: OlaparibSponsors: ARCAGY/ GINECO GROUP; AstraZenecaRecruiting
Study of PF‑06940434 in Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors.
on November 5, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Melanoma Cancer; Urothelial CancerInterventions: Drug: PF-06940434; Drug: PF-06801591Sponsor: PfizerRecruiting
A Study of the CD73 Inhibitor LY3475070 Alone or in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Participants With Advanced Cancer
on November 4, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Advanced CancerInterventions: Drug: LY3475070; Drug: PembrolizumabSponsor: Eli Lilly and CompanyRecruiting
PET Biodistribution Study of 68Ga-PSMA-11 and 68Ga-FAPI-46
on November 1, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Conditions: Breast Cancer; Colon Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Renal Cancer; Uterus CancerIntervention: Drug: 68GA-PSMA, 68GA-FAPiSponsors: Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center; National Cancer Institute (NCI)Recruiting
Breast Cancer Risk After Diagnostic Gene Sequencing
on October 31, 2019 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Genetic Predisposition to DiseaseInterventions: Genetic: BRIDGES gene panel testing; Genetic: Breast cancer risk polygenic risk score (PRS); Behavioral: QuestionnairesSponsor: Institut CurieRecruiting
- Key Statistics for Ovarian Cancer. American Cancer Society (April 11, 2018). Recovered from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer/about/key-statistics.html