Unlike other types of cancer, which are silent and asymptomatic, ovarian cancer may produce very serious signs and symptoms even at a very early stage. Some of the most common symptoms of ovarian cancer can be very similar to less serious conditions such as urinary tract infections or mild abdominal problems. These symptoms include:
What is Ovarian Cancer?
varian cancer occurs when some cells in your ovaries start to rapidly divide uncontrollably, creating growths or tumors around the ovaries and surrounding tissues. According to the American Cancer Association, ovarian cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer among women, and it is estimated that more than 20,000 women will be diagnosed with this type of cancer every year.
Ovarian cancer affects the ovaries, which are a keypart of the female reproductive system. All females have two ovaries, each about the size of an almond, which lie on either side of the uterus and are responsible for creating and releasing eggs during the menstrual cycle, as well as producing the two mean female sex hormones: estrogen and progesterone.
How is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?
- Indigestion and changes in appetite
- Changes in bowel movements
- Urinary incontinence or increased urge to urinate
- Pain around the pelvis area
- Back pain
When ovarian cancer is found at its early stages, patients have nearly a 95% chance of living more than five years after their diagnosis. However, only 20% of ovarian cancer cases are found early.
Currently, there are no tests to specifically diagnose ovarian cancer. This type of cancer is usually found during routine checkups when a professional perform a pelvic exam to evaluate the shape, size and any abnormalities in around the uterus and ovaries.
Unfortunately, it is very hard to feel or see any to see or feel any tumors early, which is why most women are diagnosed later. In addition to a pelvic exam, doctors might order a transvaginal ultrasound or a CA-125 blood test.
What Causes Ovarian Cancer?
Scientists still aren’t exactly sure about what causes ovarian cancer. As with many other types of cancer, there are a number of risk factors that can increase the likelihood of a woman to develop this kind of cancer, however, have one or even a few of these risk factors doesn’t mean that a person is destined to develop the disease.
These are some risk factors that have been observed in women with ovarian cancer:
Older women seem to be more likely than younger women to develop ovarian cancer. In fact, most women with ovarian cancer have been diagnosed after menopause, and half of all ovarian cancers are diagnosed in women 60 and older.
Researchers have observed that women who continue taking hormones after menopause has ended have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. Additionally, women who have taken estrogen without progesterone for more than five years also have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
Women with a family history of ovarian cancer (mother, sisters, grandmothers, aunts, etc.) have a higher risk of developing it than those who do not have any family history of ovarian cancer.
Having a high body mass index (BMI) has been linked to several types of cancer, including ovarian cancer. However, researchers are still trying to figure out the relationship between cancer cells and obesity.
Women who have had at least one successful pregnancy before the age of 30 seem to have a decreased risk of developing ovarian cancer, which also appears to decline with the number of children the woman has. On the other hand, women who never had children or had their first child later in life have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
How is Ovarian Cancer Treated?
The treatment course for ovarian cancer depends on the stage the cancer is in. Cancer is categorized in stages in order to describe its size and severity. The stages are as follows:
Depending on which stage the ovarian cancer is found, the doctor and the patient may decide in one – or several treatments to attack cancer cells. Some common ovarian cancer treatments include:
- Hormone therapy
- Clinical trials
Ovarian Cancer Clinical Trials
Clinical trials have contributed a lot to the current survival rates of ovarian cancer. However, researchers are still trying to find better screening methods that will allow doctors to find and diagnose ovarian cancer earlier, thus improving the patient’s life expectancy. Scientists are continuously researching new, less invasive treatment options that might potentially cure ovarian cancer.
If you are interested in participating in a clinical trial, ask your doctor or contact your local hospital and/or university to find out which trials are recruiting volunteers near you.
ClinicalTrials.gov: Recruiting Studies | Ovarian Cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days Studies found on ClinicalTrials.gov by a search of: Recruiting Studies | Ovarian Cancer | Last update posted in the last 300 days
Evaluation of the Sensitivity to Different Chemotherapy Regimens in Platinum—Partial Sensitive Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
on April 8, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian CancerInterventions: Drug: Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome Injection+carboplatin; Drug: paclitaxel +carboplatinSponsor: Hunan Cancer HospitalRecruiting
Dietary Magnesium in Preventing Low Blood Magnesium Levels in Patients With Ovarian Cancer Receiving Carboplatin Chemotherapy
on March 17, 2020 at 4:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian CarcinomaInterventions: Dietary Supplement: Dietary Intervention; Other: Media Intervention; Behavioral: Telephone-Based InterventionSponsors: M.D. Anderson Cancer Center; National Cancer Institute (NCI)Recruiting
A Study of Mirvetuximab Soravtansine in Advanced High-Grade Epithelial Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancers With High Folate Receptor-Alpha Expression
on March 5, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Peritoneal Cancer; Fallopian Tube CancerIntervention: Drug: Mirvetuximab SoravtansineSponsors: ImmunoGen, Inc.; IQVIA BiotechRecruiting
Study of AMG 650 in Adult Participants With Advanced Solid Tumors
on March 3, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Advanced Solid TumorsIntervention: Drug: AMG 650Sponsor: AmgenRecruiting
Observational Study of Women With Endometrial Cancer Who Receive the Standard Treatment for Their Disease
on March 2, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Endometrial Cancer; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Cancer Stage IIntervention: Other: Physical examSponsor: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterRecruiting
Controlled Ovarian Stimulation in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer PatiEnts (fAMHOPE)
on February 28, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Breast Neoplasm Malignant FemaleInterventions: Drug: Letrozole; Other: standard-stimulated cohortSponsors: Erasme University Hospital; University Hospital, LilleRecruiting
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Protein P16 Expression in Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors.
on February 25, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian NeoplasmsIntervention: Diagnostic Test: ImmunohistochemistrySponsor: Assiut UniversityRecruiting
Selecting Chemotherapy With High-throughput Drug Screen Assay Using Patient Derived Organoids in Patients With Refractory Solid Tumours (SCORE)
on February 21, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Organoids; HNSCC; Epithelial Ovarian Cancer; Colorectal CancerInterventions: Procedure: Tumor Core Biopsy; Procedure: Blood samplingSponsor: National University Hospital, SingaporeRecruiting
ATR Inhibitor BAY 1895344 Plus Niraparib Phase 1b Study in Advanced Solid Tumors and Ovarian Cancer
on February 13, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Advanced Solid Tumors (Excluding Prostate Cancer); Ovarian CancerInterventions: Drug: BAY1895344; Drug: NiraparibSponsor: BayerRecruiting
Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel Treatment at the Surgical Margin and Macroscopic Tumor Sites
on February 13, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Liver Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Small Intestinal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Bladder CancerIntervention: Device: Canady Helios Cold Plasma ScalpelSponsor: Jerome Canady, M.D.Recruiting
Cell-free DNA in Hereditary And High-Risk Malignancies
on February 10, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Hereditary Cancer SyndromeIntervention: Genetic: Next generation sequencing (NGS)Sponsors: University Health Network, Toronto; Sinai Health System; Women's College Hospital; British Columbia Cancer Agency; Jewish General Hospital; CancerCare Manitoba; IWK Health CentreRecruiting
NUVOLA TRIAL Open-label Multicentre Study
on February 7, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: High Grade Serous Ovarian CancerInterventions: Drug: Olaparib; Drug: Paclitaxel; Drug: CarboplatinSponsor: Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCSRecruiting
Primary Cyto-reductive Surgery Vs Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
on February 6, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Advanced CancerInterventions: Procedure: 1ry cyto-reductive surgery; Combination Product: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgerySponsor: Assiut UniversityRecruiting
Factors Influencing Cascade Testing Among Women With Hereditary Gynecological Cancers and Their Relatives
on February 5, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Breast Carcinoma; Deleterious CDH1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious DICER1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious SMARCA4 Gene Mutation; Deleterious STK11 Gene Mutation; Endometrial Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal CarcinomaInterventions: Other: Interview; Other: Questionnaire Administration; Other: Survey AdministrationSponsors: M.D. Anderson Cancer Center; National Cancer Institute (NCI)Recruiting
Optimal Timing of BR55 CEUS of the Ovaries
on January 30, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian CancerIntervention: Drug: BR55Sponsors: Bracco Diagnostics, Inc; National Institutes of Health (NIH)Recruiting
CINSARC Genomic Signature as Predictor of Resectability of Ovarian Adenocarcinoma
on January 30, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Condition: Ovarian AdenocarcinomaIntervention: Other: CINSARC signatureSponsor: Institut Claudius RegaudRecruiting
First-in-Human Dose Escalation Trial of ATRC-101 in Adults With Advanced Solid Malignancies
on January 28, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Acral Lentiginous MelanomaIntervention: Biological: ATRC-101Sponsor: Atreca, Inc.Recruiting
Feasibility of a Clinical Trial Comparing the Use of Cetirizine to Replace Diphenhydramine in the Prevention of Reactions Related to Paclitaxel
on January 22, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Breast Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Oesophageal Cancer; Head Cancer Neck; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial CancerInterventions: Drug: Diphenhydramine; Drug: Cetirizine; Drug: Lactose pill; Drug: Sodium chloride 0.9%Sponsor: Ciusss de L'Est de l'Île de MontréalRecruiting
Integrated Care Pathway in Oncology (PASSION)
on January 22, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Colon Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Thoracic Neoplasms; Breast Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Prostate CancerIntervention: Behavioral: Care pathway unitSponsors: Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris; MSD FranceRecruiting
Study of SO-C101 and SO-C101in Combination With Pembro in Adult Patients With Advanced/Metastatic Solid Tumors
on January 21, 2020 at 5:00 pm
Conditions: Thyroid; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Small-cell Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Melanoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Microsatellite Instability High; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Mesothelioma; Thymic Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Biliary Tract Cancer; Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Ovarian Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal CancerInterventions: Drug: SO-C101; Drug: pembrolizumabSponsor: Sotio a.s.Recruiting
- Key Statistics for Ovarian Cancer. American Cancer Society (April 11, 2018). Recovered from: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer/about/key-statistics.html